Subscribe
Wednesday, 03 January 2018 12:43

Litigation

Written by Administrator
Wednesday, 03 January 2018 12:42

Corporate

Written by Administrator

Although parents may be paying tuition, covering children under their health insurance, and even claiming them as dependents on their tax return, without a Power of Attorney that parent may be helpless to aid their adult aged child (over 18 years of age) with medical or financial matters.  Their doctors, hospitals, and even the college they attend, are limited in the information they are able to share with parents or other adults.  A Power of Attorney for medical and financial matters allows a college student, or any adult, to appoint someone to handle these matters for them if they are unable or unavailable to handle it themselves.

While they are home between semesters, you might want to consider speaking to an estate planning attorney who can help plan and put the proper documents in place to allow your young adult to appoint the person or persons they trust to handle financial and medical matters for them. If they have a serious illness or accident, having these documents in place can save the family time and significant costs by avoiding the immediate need to seek a court appointed guardian. If they are traveling abroad and need assistance with matters at home, the Power of Attorney will allow their agent to handle banking transactions, sign tax returns and many other types of matters for them.

Taking the time to be sure these documents are in place before they become necessary can save the family, and the young adult, time if an emergency arises and it becomes necessary to use them. 

For more information about Powers of Attorney, our Estate Planning services, or Stephanie Shortall, Please visit us at ammlaw.com.

Although parents may be paying tuition, covering children under their health insurance, and even claiming them as dependents on their tax return, without a Power of Attorney that parent may be helpless to aid their adult aged child (over 18 years of age) with medical or financial matters.  Their doctors, hospitals, and even the college they attend, are limited in the information they are able to share with parents or other adults.  A Power of Attorney for medical and financial matters allows a college student, or any adult, to appoint someone to handle these matters for them if they are unable or unavailable to handle it themselves.

While they are home between semesters, you might want to consider speaking to an estate planning attorney who can help plan and put the proper documents in place to allow your young adult to appoint the person or persons they trust to handle financial and medical matters for them. If they have a serious illness or accident, having these documents in place can save the family time and significant costs by avoiding the immediate need to seek a court appointed guardian. If they are traveling abroad and need assistance with matters at home, the Power of Attorney will allow their agent to handle banking transactions, sign tax returns and many other types of matters for them.

Taking the time to be sure these documents are in place before they become necessary can save the family, and the young adult, time if an emergency arises and it becomes necessary to use them. 

For more information about Powers of Attorney, estate planning or Stephanie M. Shortall, Please visit us at ammlaw.com.

On December 22nd, President Trump signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which will take effect on January 1st.  This legislation will have far reaching implications for both individual and corporate taxpayers.  The attached analysis and charts provide an overview of some of the key changes made by the new Act, along with some planning considerations between now and year-end.

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

 

On December 22nd, President Trump signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which will take effect on January 1st.  This legislation will have far reaching implications for both individual and corporate taxpayers.  The attached analysis and charts provide an overview of some of the key changes made by the new Act, along with some planning considerations between now and year-end.

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

 

Click here for a profile of Michael W. Mills, Esq., or our Tax practice. 

According to the National Center for Charitable Statistics (NCCS), more than 1.5 million nonprofit organizations are registered in the U.S.   We are proud to represent many such nonprofit organizations operating in the greater Delaware Valley.
These organizations serve the communities in which we live with steadfast passion and dedication.  The focus on community improvement, volunteerism and charity is remarkable.  We are pleased to play our small part in furtherance of their lofty goals.

Unfortunately, not everyone involved in the nonprofit industry shares the same altruistic philosophy.  Invariably, we read newspaper stories about the nonprofit treasurer who diverted funds destined for an ambulance squad or the director that diverted hundreds of thousands from youth athletics programs.  The question becomes, what is a nonprofit to do when defalcation is discovered? 

Generally, the law imposes no duty upon an individual or organization that discovers a financial defalcation to report the facts discovered to the authorities.  Only with respect to certain crimes, mostly involving abuse or child pornography, does a duty to report criminal activity arise.  Under current statutory law, no such duty exists upon the discovery of a theft or diversion of nonprofit funds.    

Many nonprofits are reluctant to report the defalcation.  The negative publicity which follows a public disclosure can be devastating to the credibility of an organization that is already competing for donor dollars.  Based on such pressures, for-profit organizations often choose to forego even the private exercise of confronting the accused in an effort to seek recovery preferring instead to simply take steps to ensure the same kind of breach of trust could not be repeated.  In the nonprofit world, such private decision making is in sharp contrast to fiduciary duties owed to the organization and the moral, if not legal, duties which are founded in the donor/donee relationship.   Moreover, the public nature of nonprofit tax filings may render disclosure inevitable,  such that the desired privacy cannot be maintained. 

Large nonprofits must file an Internal Revenue Service Form 990 each year.  The form summarizes the financial performance of the nonprofit.  In turn, every Form 990 that is filed is publicly available with just a few key strokes.  The Form 990 requires that the organization report to the IRS whether the organization “became aware of a significant diversion of the organization’s assets” in the current year.  Thus, the IRS requires the organization disclose defalcations which amount to a “significant diversion”. 

Despite potential negative publicity associated with disclosure of malfeasance in nonprofit administration, the inevitability of disclosure weighs in favor of a more transparent approach.  Best practices suggest that the entity’s Form 990 be reviewed by the board of directors prior to submission to the IRS, in fact,  the redesigned form asks whether the tax return was furnished  to the board for review prior to filing.  An astute donor – particularly a business savvy donor - is likely to read the 990 with a critical eye.  The worst scenario is that a director or donor becomes aware of the defalcation and subsequently questions the adequacy of management response, potentially a death knell to contributions, and the tenure of the secretive executive director. 

In addition, the nonprofit’s auditor, while not required to disclose every fraud in a footnote to the financials, would need to consider whether the theft had a financial impact on the statements.  If the dollar amount warranted it, it might have to be reported directly on the statements – either as a line item-loss from fraud or a receivable for repayment of stolen funds. 

Further, the question of the directors’ fiduciary duties to the organization in such circumstances has not yet been addressed.  Certainly, the directors of a nonprofit, having been placed in a position of trust by the organization, and bear some responsibility for effective management and control.   To date, no court has imposed liability upon the directors of a nonprofit for failing to investigate potential recovery, failing to report defalcation, or failing to seek recovery of proceeds unlawfully diverted.   While that is certainly not what the volunteer directors sign up for, we can see that case coming. 

Navigating the potential exposure requires a complete understanding of financial controls and information, reporting requirements and the composition of the board of directors.  Generally, the best advice is to conduct a complete investigation, proactively adopt whatever policies are necessary to prevent a re-occurrence, and report the bad actor to the relevant authorities.  Such actions would certainly satisfy any duty to the organization.