Many of our previous posts delve into the benefits of resolution of a commercial or shareholder dispute without litigation.  Cost, uncertainty and business distraction are factors which often weigh in favor of settlement even at a price which seems unfair.  But making a deal necessitates a desire to do so from both sides.  As they say, it takes two to tango.  If one party is simply not so inclined or the final best offer is simply unacceptable, litigation may be inevitable, and the only mechanism available to bring about resolution.   

In a corporate setting, that litigation may take several forms.  Choosing the right path is fact intensive and dependent on the relative positions of the parties.  Of course, the terms of agreement between business owners may either provide mechanisms for resolution or limit potential alternatives.  Regardless, every course of action comes with significant consequences which must be carefully considered prior to embarking on what can be both emotionally taxing and expensive.

Minority Shareholder Strategies

A minority shareholder who is not actively involved in the business has limited options.  Unless a shareholders’ agreement provide a mechanism for redemption or transfer, it may be difficult for a minority shareholder to compel a purchase.  That minority shareholder would be left to argue that he or she has been “frozen out” from the business, i.e. excluded from information relating to management, oppressed or treated inequitably in terms of distributions of profits so as to trigger an obligation that the company redeem their shares at “fair value”.  An action for the appointment of a custodian or receiver is the minority shareholders weapon of choice in that instance.  Majority and controlling shareholders are loathe to lose control of what is often their economic life blood. 

Majority Shareholder Strategies

A majority shareholder desirous of consolidation of ownership faced with a minority owner not interested in selling also has limited options to compel a sale.  In the absence of an agreement which provides for same, there is no provision at law relating to corporations to simply expel a shareholder.  With regard to llc’s, the Pennsylvania Limited Liability Company Act provides a limited number of circumstances where the right of expulsion may apply.  In either case, involuntary expulsion of a minority interest is no easy task. 

The Nuclear Option

The above being said, the nuclear option available to a controlling interest is dissolution.  Blow it up, resign all positions which impose fiduciary obligations at law, liquidate the assets and start something new.  While the process may be incredibly disruptive to the continuity of business and the personal finances of all the parties, if the separation of the minority interest holder is imperative dissolution may be the only option.  The minority may scream breach of fiduciary duty, but in the absence of an agreement among shareholders that the shareholders would not move to dissolve, the success of such a claim at law is speculative at best. 

In the end, the decision of whether to engage in such explosive tactics involves a financial analysis but also other factors such as whether the long term interests of the parties require same.  In some cases, such as in professional settings, potential irreparable damage to reputation may demand action regardless of the short term pain such action may cause.            

Published in AMM Blog

People often ask, “What kind of lawyer are you?”  After my stock (and feeble) comedic response of “a good one”, I often say I am a “commercial litigator”.  I explain that our practice includes litigation of disputes which arise between businesses and business owners.  Commercial litigation includes a wide range of potential issues ranging from business torts to breach of contract, both internal to a business entity, and between two or more separate entities.  While there are a wide range of potential issues which must be considered, there are certain basic tenets which I always discuss with our clients before recommending litigation or taking on their representation.   

First, do you have an agreement which might apply to the situation and, if so, what does that agreement say about your position?  Agreements can come is various shapes and sizes, such as corporate by-laws, a formal shareholder agreement, a proposal combined with an acceptance or performance, or even a simple exchange of emails.  Documentary evidence is key, as a litigator is challenged to explain why the written word should not be impactful.       

Second, what is your goal? The kiss of death as to our representation is a client who says “it’s not about the money, it’s the principle”. When I was a young lawyer I had a mentor who gave sage advice when he communicated the firm’s policy that litigation was only appropriate when money was involved.  He would politely say, “we don’t litigate over principle”.  In many ways and in most situations that adage applies.  However, in the corporate setting, sometimes the connection to money is not readily evident or direct such as with regard to disputes over corporate control or enforcing a covenant not to compete.  In many situations, I caution stakeholders to take the long view and weigh the probable outcomes from a purely practical standpoint, taking care never to  lose sight of their long range business goals.   

Third, what is your capacity for litigation and business distraction?  Litigation not only costs money in terms of attorney fees, accountant fees, experts and costs, but participation also requires commitment of a leader’s most valuable commodity; time.  Business people are first and foremost concerned with business (daily operations, management and the bottom line).  Litigation invariably requires substantial client involvement in developing strategy, reviewing pleadings, searching for documents, reviewing documents produced by other parties and preparation for testimony.  I advise potential parties to litigation to think long and hard about the cost/benefit to the business of such an undertaking.

Fourth, what can you hope to recover or save; and what will it cost to do so?  While a corollary to litigation about money, it is not the same question.  The evaluation of potential cost is complex and issue dependent.   In a recent case, settlement discussions in a commercial litigation setting were driven by the anticipated six figure cost to translate thousands of pages of information from Chinese characters to English.  Costs of experts on any issue involving an opinion on issues ranging from the standard of care applicable to a corporate officer, to whether a machine functioned in the way represented, can rapidly accumulate.  Unless there is a provision in an agreement which provides for the recovery of attorney fees or such recovery is otherwise permitted under law, those fees and costs are not recoverable.

The above is not to discourage litigation of bona fide disputes; of which we handle many.  It is simply imperative that the lawyer and the client be on the same page as to expectations, risks and litigation management.  These questions can assist in forming the framework of a solid attorney client relationship in a commercial litigation setting, which goes a long way toward developing realistic expectations, reducing the stress inherent in the process,  and optimizing the chances of a successful outcome.

Published in AMM Blog

In my many years of practice as a commercial litigator dealing with conflicts between shareholders, it has become clear time and again that one of the best things business owners can do when in business with multiple shareholders or partners is to have a well-defined agreement which governs the operations of the business.  Not only can that agreement memorialize the respective rights and obligations of the parties, it can also provide dispute resolution mechanisms which may serve the parties well in the event of material disagreement. Utilizing the powers granted by the Business Corporations Law and granted by the terms of an agreement governing business owners can be complex and risky but can often force an acceptable resolution when the status quo is no longer tenable.

In the case of a corporation, a shareholders agreement or by-laws will often identify the corporate office which holds supreme executive authority subject only to removal of that corporate officer by a vote of the directors. If the officer controls sufficient votes from the board, removal by a disgruntled shareholder may be impossible. The acts of the executive are subject to the business judgment rule and granted a certain amount of deference at law.  

A majority shareholder who holds the top executive office is free to wield that power, consistent with the business judgment rule, in many ways -  including business dealings with outside parties and, generally, with respect to employment decisions.  If the disgruntled shareholder is an employee of the company, which is often the case in small business, that shareholder’s continued employment may be at the discretion of the majority.  Termination of employment, if justified, is a use of corporate power which often impacts on the relative negotiating positions.      

Of course, a majority shareholder who exercises corporate authority can be faced with claims that the minority has been “frozen” or “squeezed” out of the business.  In such cases, it is important that the majority have “clean hands” and has avoided self-dealing, corporate waste or fraud as such allegations, if proven, could result in the appointment of a custodian or receiver and a loss of control.  Certainly the majority cannot transfer the assets of the business to a new entity controlled solely by the majority.   However, the existing entity can be managed in a way that maximizes benefit to the majority consistent with the exercise of business judgment.  The existence of a dispute between shareholders does not in and of itself negate the discretion afforded by the business judgment rule.        

AMM counsels clients through the minefield of corporate authority and with regard to available strategies to address disputes which arise between business owners. 

Published in AMM Blog

It is not unusual for business owners such as manufacturers and their suppliers and consultants to enter into joint ownership in the pursuit of mutual business goals.  Those pursuing this strategy should consider that such entanglements can lead to costly future litigation should circumstances change and interests of the parties diverge. In a recent case, a dispute arose between owners of a custom manufacturing limited liability company in which AMM’s client (and a supplier to that same LLC) possessed 33 1/3% of the issued and outstanding ownership interests.   The firm’s client also owned 100% of the stock in a separate business entity which supplied materials to the jointly owned custom manufacturer. 

When the owners had a falling out, an issue arose with regard to the payment of outstanding invoices generated by the supplier for materials provided to the jointly owned custom manufacturer.  When a resolution could not be reached, AMM, on behalf of the supplier, commenced litigation.   During the litigation, the majority member of the jointly held custom manufacturer transferred all of the inventory and other assets to a newly formed entity, owned entirely by him, without the payment of consideration, that is to say, without compensating the supplier entity.  The transfer of assets left the jointly held entity with insufficient assets to meet its’ liabilities; including the liabilities to the supplier.   As a matter of strategy, the controlling member of the jointly owned entity allowed default judgment in favor of the supplier and against the jointly held custom manufacturer.  The newly created entity went about doing business utilizing the inventory transferred without regard to the liability to the supplier.

The transfers gave rise to new and additional claims under the recently adopted Uniform Fraudulent Conveyances Act and claims of breach of fiduciary duty; all of which had to be litigated while the newly formed company operated a separate business. Clearly, a small business owner can no longer simply set up shop as a new entity when things go bad and debt accumulates. However, the complexity of ownership structure and relationship between the various entities made judicial intervention very difficult.   In the end, the newly formed entity was forced to file a general assignment for the benefit of creditors; the majority owner lost his interest in all of the respective entities and eventually filed for personal bankruptcy. 

The above is just one of many “war stories” encountered in attempting to unwind jointly owned business enterprises.  Business owners and potential investors should think very carefully before engaging in shared ownership.  What may seem like a mutually beneficial relationship at the outset can be costly and challenging to undo if things go bad in the future.    

The take away for business owners and potential investors is to think very carefully before engaging in shared ownership.  What may seem like a mutually beneficial relationship at the outset can be costly and challenging to undo if things go bad in the future. 

Published in AMM Blog
Thursday, 28 June 2018 19:25

Preparing Your Business For Transition

There are many reasons why businesses sell.  Certainly, the lifecycle of a successful business is often longer than the founder or controlling shareholder’s desire to continue working.  In such circumstances, a business owner may wish to extract the reward for years of sweat equity by transitioning to a new ownership group.   In other situations, a strategic combination is necessary to fuel continued growth in scope of services or customer reach.  Sometimes, an entrepreneur must simply choose between a number of different projects such that divestiture of one opportunity becomes necessary. 

Whatever the reason, preparing the business for the sale process can both enhance the value of the transaction and make for a smooth transition.  A sophisticated buyer is loath to take on uncertainties, non-ordinary course liabilities or business practices which may give rise to same.  A potential seller is wise to get their “house” in order before going to market or even considering discussions with a potential buyer. 

Financial Reporting

Financial information is a primary focus of due diligence.  Many businesses do not commission audited financial statements on an annual basis.  For many more, the annual tax return stands alone as an indication of the value of the business.  However, tax returns prepared without an eye on sale often reflect information designed to reflect a reduced tax liability as opposed to demonstrating the value of a going concern.  A business owner is wise to consider the assistance of a qualified accounting firm to prepare corporate financial information in a light more suitable for transactional purposes.  The actual filing of all applicable returns is a must.

Human Relations & Employment Practices and Policies

Human relations matters are a potential land mine.  An employee handbook summarizing policies and procedures is essential.  If benefits plans are in place, compliance with all applicable laws will be required if a deal is to be consummated.  A current employee census and proof of citizenship or immigration status will be required.  Key employees should be subject to employment agreements with assignable restrictive covenants.  An acquiror will desire protection against an exodus of management.  

Customers and Business Partnerships

Customer relationships and key business agreements should be locked down.  An analysis of such agreements in advance with special attention to assignability or change in control provisions is necessary due diligence in any sale.  Disclosure to a client or customer may make for a difficult discussion, however, a buyer will want to ensure the continuation of the business relationships prior to commitment. Indemnification obligations and intellectual property rights are certain to be addressed to the extent integral to any customer relationships.

A well-constructed house sells more readily and for greater value than a leaky one on an unstable foundation.   Further, a buyer will often require representations and warranties as to the material issues summarized above such that, even after closing, a deficiency can be costly to a seller who thought the transaction was over and the profits safely secured. monetarily impactful. A seller is wise to identify and address deficiencies in advance of sale discussions both to maximize value and make for a smooth, efficient and cost effective transaction.       

Published in AMM Blog

The words “I’m calling my lawyer” as famously spoken on the big screen are intended to inspire fear and trepidation.  They often do; particularly where one side in litigation has a disproportionally strong legal position on a critical issue.  The threat of litigation is certainly a motivating factor in pre-suit settlement discussion.  Even before lawyers get involved in a dispute, the parties have often drawn their respective battle lines and prepared for the standoff.     

Sometimes litigation is absolutely necessary.  Where one party to a dispute unreasonably believes a legal position is infallible or is deluded by the grandeur of potential recovery, a third party, arbitrator, judge or jury may be necessary to convince that party otherwise.  An inability to assess risk often results in a failure to completely evaluate ramifications. In such cases, litigation is inevitable and the best available alternative.      

Under any circumstances, the parties must consider the impact of litigation.  In business, that impact is not only the expenditure associated with legal fees, but also the distraction litigation brings to the business.  Instead of pursuing the next lead, deal or development, the business can be dedicated to the completion of discovery, attendance at deposition or preparation for trial. 

A couple of practical considerations:

First, involvement in litigation invites intrusion into a business’s management, internal affairs and financial information.  Selecting appropriate individuals within your company who will be involved on a day to day basis and who have knowledge of the facts of the dispute can be a massive undertaking in and of itself, as the demands of producing needed information, data and research will inevitably interfere with that person or persons performing their normal duties and responsibilities for the business.   More importantly, in some cases, litigation results in exposure or threatened exposure of otherwise secret information.  Customer relationships can be impacted, particularly if those customers are forced to respond to subpoenas.  It is critical under such circumstances that business owners and managers make sure a plan is in place to manage internal and external communication.  

Other sensitive information may also be revealed.  In a classic case of “I did not realize that was important”, clients often omit material facts which may not bear directly on their claim but which may be implicitly revealed.  Tax issues are a prime example of such material facts.  Any time money changes hands, the manner in which such proceeds are recorded will be addressed in litigation and to the extent either party has sought an unsupportable tax advantage, that act or omission will be revealed.    

Undoubtedly, the party sued will seek retaliation and file counterclaims.  For example, a contractor performs work for a homeowner which the homeowner fails to pay for.  Contractor sues, only to have the homeowner raise counterclaims based on the Unfair Trade Practices and Consumer Protection law which provides for triple damages and attorney fees which can potentially dwarf the original claim. Now the contractor spends more defending the claim for treble damages than in pursuit of the recovery.    

Finally, there is the issue of cost.  Litigation is expensive.  At the end of the day, the parties must consider the cost of a particular course of action and whether the potential for recovery is simply outweighed by that cost. 

So before embarking down the road of litigation, be certain it is a path you wish to follow.  Be sure to consider the impacts, both intended and incidental, to ongoing business operations.  Be sure your house is in order and that the skeletons in the closets are not subject to reanimation.  Finally, be confident in the analysis that money spent in litigation is a good investment. 

Published in AMM Blog

According to the National Center for Charitable Statistics (NCCS), more than 1.5 million nonprofit organizations are registered in the U.S.   We are proud to represent many such nonprofit organizations operating in the greater Delaware Valley.
These organizations serve the communities in which we live with steadfast passion and dedication.  The focus on community improvement, volunteerism and charity is remarkable.  We are pleased to play our small part in furtherance of their lofty goals.

Unfortunately, not everyone involved in the nonprofit industry shares the same altruistic philosophy.  Invariably, we read newspaper stories about the nonprofit treasurer who diverted funds destined for an ambulance squad or the director that diverted hundreds of thousands from youth athletics programs.  The question becomes, what is a nonprofit to do when defalcation is discovered? 

Generally, the law imposes no duty upon an individual or organization that discovers a financial defalcation to report the facts discovered to the authorities.  Only with respect to certain crimes, mostly involving abuse or child pornography, does a duty to report criminal activity arise.  Under current statutory law, no such duty exists upon the discovery of a theft or diversion of nonprofit funds.    

Many nonprofits are reluctant to report the defalcation.  The negative publicity which follows a public disclosure can be devastating to the credibility of an organization that is already competing for donor dollars.  Based on such pressures, for-profit organizations often choose to forego even the private exercise of confronting the accused in an effort to seek recovery preferring instead to simply take steps to ensure the same kind of breach of trust could not be repeated.  In the nonprofit world, such private decision making is in sharp contrast to fiduciary duties owed to the organization and the moral, if not legal, duties which are founded in the donor/donee relationship.   Moreover, the public nature of nonprofit tax filings may render disclosure inevitable,  such that the desired privacy cannot be maintained. 

Large nonprofits must file an Internal Revenue Service Form 990 each year.  The form summarizes the financial performance of the nonprofit.  In turn, every Form 990 that is filed is publicly available with just a few key strokes.  The Form 990 requires that the organization report to the IRS whether the organization “became aware of a significant diversion of the organization’s assets” in the current year.  Thus, the IRS requires the organization disclose defalcations which amount to a “significant diversion”. 

Despite potential negative publicity associated with disclosure of malfeasance in nonprofit administration, the inevitability of disclosure weighs in favor of a more transparent approach.  Best practices suggest that the entity’s Form 990 be reviewed by the board of directors prior to submission to the IRS, in fact,  the redesigned form asks whether the tax return was furnished  to the board for review prior to filing.  An astute donor – particularly a business savvy donor - is likely to read the 990 with a critical eye.  The worst scenario is that a director or donor becomes aware of the defalcation and subsequently questions the adequacy of management response, potentially a death knell to contributions, and the tenure of the secretive executive director. 

In addition, the nonprofit’s auditor, while not required to disclose every fraud in a footnote to the financials, would need to consider whether the theft had a financial impact on the statements.  If the dollar amount warranted it, it might have to be reported directly on the statements – either as a line item-loss from fraud or a receivable for repayment of stolen funds. 

Further, the question of the directors’ fiduciary duties to the organization in such circumstances has not yet been addressed.  Certainly, the directors of a nonprofit, having been placed in a position of trust by the organization, and bear some responsibility for effective management and control.   To date, no court has imposed liability upon the directors of a nonprofit for failing to investigate potential recovery, failing to report defalcation, or failing to seek recovery of proceeds unlawfully diverted.   While that is certainly not what the volunteer directors sign up for, we can see that case coming. 

Navigating the potential exposure requires a complete understanding of financial controls and information, reporting requirements and the composition of the board of directors.  Generally, the best advice is to conduct a complete investigation, proactively adopt whatever policies are necessary to prevent a re-occurrence, and report the bad actor to the relevant authorities.  Such actions would certainly satisfy any duty to the organization. 

Published in AMM Blog

In the many years I have been working as outside counsel to closely held businesses, one of the frequent pitfalls leading to costly litigation and operational conflicts is the failure of shareholders to adequately document and formalize their expectations, especially as it relates to minority shareholders.  The first question I ask when contacted by a business owner who is dealing with shareholder conflicts is “What does your shareholders’ agreement say?”  Unfortunately, too often, the answer is “What shareholders’ agreement?”   

Many small businesses are formed by a group of people who share a collective belief at the time of formation.  There are often unwritten understandings as to the division of roles within the business.  Almost universally, the expectation is that all of these founding shareholders will devote ongoing resources to the business.  Conflicts arise when those expectations diverge, when one shareholder fails to perform within the business, or even when a shareholder exits the company.   
 
When conflict does arise, mechanisms for resolution can be limited, complex and expensive.  Certainly a transfer of a non-performing shareholder’s stock seems like a simple straightforward course of action.  However,   in the absence of an agreement providing for transfer upon specified events, the business has no absolute right to remove a shareholder or force a transfer of the share ownership interest.  Even a shareholder who has ceased to be actively involved in the business continues to enjoy all of the rights attendant to the ownership of the shares: the shareholder need not come to work, need not contribute capital, need not pursue business opportunity in the name of the company.  Employment may end, but the right to enjoy distribution of profits does not, as long as share ownership persists.  As most small businesses are organized as subchapter “s” corporations, profits must be distributed in accordance with share percentage. 

Ownership of stock gives rise to all of the rights provided by statute.  Minority shareholders enjoy the right to obtain information about the performance of the company, attend and vote at shareholders’ meetings, and receive distributions of profits derived from corporate operations.  Minority shareholders can be an impediment to stock transfers, anchors against change and obstacles to capital expenditures. Such situations are a constant bone of contention among owners of small businesses. 
 
Of course, the best solution is an agreement that accurately reflects the understandings of the shareholders at the time the shares are assigned, or the company is formed.  Such agreements can provide clearly defined roles within the business, mandatory transfer upon termination of employment, death or disability, valuation mechanisms and provisions restricting transfer.  Adopting an agreement, at minimum, provides a foundation for the business relationship, and may provide a roadmap in the event of disagreement.    

In the absence of an agreement, a dispute with a minority shareholder requires careful management. The majority must take care to avoid vesting a minority shareholder with breach of fiduciary duty claims or shareholder oppression.   Compliance with corporate formalities is imperative. While there is no guaranty of continuing employment for a minority shareholder (with exceptions), distributions or profits in accordance with ownership percentages is required if the company has elected “s” corporation treatment.  Certainly, majority and employed shareholders may receive compensation for services rendered, but an artificial manipulation of corporate profits would certainly be relevant to a minority shareholder oppression claim.  

Pennsylvania Business Corporations Law provides little relief to a majority shareholder who continues to run a profitable business without the assistance of his or her minority shareholders. The statute provides no right to extract a non-performing shareholder against his/her will at any price, and provides no absolute right of liquidation. Even the nuclear option of judicial corporate liquidation requires that the complaining shareholder allege irreparable harm to the company; an allegation which may be impossible if the business is successful as a result of the majority’s efforts.

Formation of an appropriate and workable shareholders’ agreement requires legal representation; as does management of divergent goals between shareholders.  Owners of s corporations with minority shareholders would be wise to review their governing documents and take proactive steps to safeguard the future value of their shares, and avoid crippling and costly litigation. Antheil Maslow and MacMinn business attorneys are highly experienced in such matters and leverage a team of professionals in differing disciplines to navigate these complex waters.       

 

 

 

Published in AMM Blog

Reprinted with permission from the June 27th edition of the The Legal Intelligencer © 2017 ALM Media Properties, LLC. All rights reserved.Further duplication without permission is prohibited.

Earn out clauses in business acquisitions are notoriously fertile ground for disputes.  Complicated post-closing performance metrics, access to information, modifications to accounting methodologies after closing, tracking and collection of revenue information all present opportunities for buyer and seller to disagree.  The classic struggle of seller’s effort to maximize sale return juxtaposed against buyer’s focus on transforming the operations of the acquired enterprise for long term success necessarily create friction.  Both sides bring their unique perspectives to the interpretation of the exhaustively negotiated purchase agreement with the new benefit of hindsight. 

Certainly, arbitration pursuant to the Commercial Rules of the American Arbitration Association is common in any number of business contracts.  When the parties elect that process, they accept the applicable Rules and agree to adopt the procedures which have been developed by AAA.  In the earn out or deferred consideration context, however, acknowledging the sheer number of potential conflicts surrounding inherent accounting practices, scriveners often  incorporate a unique mechanism for dispute resolution in their  transactional documents.   When the issue is theoretically limited to a calculation, the parties go to great pains to define the applicable accounting terms and may design a system of dispute resolution which does not contemplate many of the applicable provisions of the Commercial Rules or empower any judicial or quasi-judicial third party to control the process. 

Indeed, transactional practitioners have developed language which seeks to avoid the intricacies of AAA arbitration in preference for what should be a predictable accounting calculation based on verified numerical results of operations.  In such cases, parties most commonly agree to submit any dispute related to the earn out to an informal resolution process using mutually agreed upon accountants to serve as “expert consultants and not as arbitrators.” The sole purpose of the accountants’ participation is the review of financial information relating to post closing operations and the calculation of deferred consideration; which calculation would be “final and binding”. 

Published in AMM Blog

The law requires drivers in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and New Jersey to maintain a certain minimum level of liability coverage with regard to any automobile.  That coverage serves the important function of providing a fund from which an injured person may recover for injuries caused by the negligence of the person securing the coverage known as the “insured”.  Liability coverage also serves the equally important role of protecting the insured’s personal assets by providing a monetary barrier between the claims of an injured person and the personal assets of the insured  

Some other provisions of an automobile policy which get far less attention, however, are also designed to protect the insured as opposed to someone injured by the insured’s negligence.  Policy provisions such as “stacking”, the limited tort option (known in New Jersey as the “verbal threshold”) and uninsured/underinsured protections are critically important to the insuring relationship and may be the difference between a successful recovery and a recovery which is not enough to satisfy your own medical bills, even if you are involved in an accident caused by the negligence of someone else.  “Penny wise and pound foolish” is a dangerous proposition when it comes to automobile coverage.

We recently and successfully tried a week long jury trial in the Bucks County Court of Common Pleas where the predominant issue in the case was the clients’ election of the limited tort option in his auto insurance policy. By choosing the limited tort option, the client had relinquished his right to bring suit against anyone whose negligence may have caused him to be injured,  unless the accident resulted in a “serious impairment of a bodily function”.  In our case, the client had suffered a mild traumatic brain injury – a concussion.  Unlike the majority of individuals who suffer such injuries, our client did not recover as expected, and continued to suffer mild neuropsychological deficits such as difficulty in word finding and rapid processing of information. Notwithstanding those deficits, the client was able to return to his normal occupation.  Because our client had chosen the limited tort option, the tortfeasor’s insurer refused to make any offer of settlement whatsoever based on his neuropsychological deficits, offering only to satisfy the client’s lost wages.  Our negotiating position on behalf of our client in settlement discussions was clearly disadvantaged since the insurance company knew there was substantial potential that the very specific and nuanced nature of the injury would be difficult for a jury to grasp, and might lead a jury to conclude the client had not suffered a “serious impairment of a bodily function”.  While we were successful at trial, the matter is one which should and would have been resolved in settlement but for the election of limited tort coverage by the client.  Had our client invested in full tort coverage, he would have been spared an emotionally taxing and all-consuming trial on merits and damages.

Published in AMM Blog
Page 1 of 2

Blogger Bios

  • Alan Wandalowski Alan Wandalowski
    Alan concentrates his practice in Estate Planning, Estate Administration, Elder Law, Estate…
  • Bill MacMinn Bill MacMinn
    Bill concentrates his practice in the area of litigation, including Commercial Litigation,…
  • Elaine T. Yandrisevits Elaine T. Yandrisevits
    As an estate planning attorney, Elaine Yandrisevits is committed to guiding individuals…
  • Elizabeth J. Fineman Elizabeth J. Fineman
    Elizabeth Fineman concentrates her practice on domestic relations matters and handles a…
  • Gabriel Montemuro Gabriel Montemuro
    Gabe’s practice focuses on litigation, including commercial litigation, personal injury, estate and…
  • Jamie M. Jamison Jamie M. Jamison
    Jamie Jamison is a supportive, knowledgeable advocate to clients experiencing the challenges…
  • Jessica A. Pritchard Jessica A. Pritchard
    Jessica A. Pritchard, focuses her practice exclusively in the area of family…
  • Joanne Murray Joanne Murray
    Joanne concentrates her practice in the areas of Business Law, Business Transactions,…
  • John Trainer John Trainer
    John’s concentrates his legal practice in estate planning, estate administration and elder…
  • Mariam Ibrahim Mariam Ibrahim
    Mariam Ibrahim is dedicated to helping clients and their families navigate the…
  • Michael Klimpl Michael Klimpl
    Michael’s practice areas include Real Estate, Municipal Law, Zoning and Land Use, Employment…
  • Michael W. Mills Michael W. Mills
    Mike is devoted to helping businesses build value and improve working capital,…
  • Patricia Collins Patricia Collins
    Patty has been practicing law since 1996 in the areas of Employment…
  • Stephanie M. Shortall Stephanie M. Shortall
    Throughout her career, Stephanie has developed a practice focused on advising closely…
  • Susan Maslow Susan Maslow
    Sue concentrates her practice primarily in general corporate transactional work and finance…
  • Thomas P. Donnelly Thomas P. Donnelly
    Tom’s practice focuses on commercial litigation and transactions. In litigation, Tom represents…